HANDBOOK OF DIGITAL TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-SPEED DESIGN PDF

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High-speed digital system design: a handbook of interconnect theory and design measurement techniques, as well as many other topics. In doing so, a unique. HANDBOOK OF DIGITAL. TECHNIQUES FOR. HIGH-SPEED DESIGN. Design Examples, Signaling and Memory. Technologies, Fiber Optics, Modeling and. DIGITAL DESIGN. A Handbook of Black Magic . logic gates, and standard high- speed measurement techniques, respectively. These three High-speed digital design studies how passive circuit elements affect signal propa- gation (ringing.


Handbook Of Digital Techniques For High-speed Design Pdf

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Ott, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York, (1) Source: Howard Johnson's High Speed Digital Design Handbook. Handbook of Digital Techniques for High-Speed Design: Design Examples, Signaling and Memory Technologies, Fiber Optics, Modeling, and Simulation to. Handbook Of Digital Techniques For High Speed Design Design Examples techniques, trends, and analysis forkodak photographic filters handbook pdf -.

As circuits have continued to shrink in accordance with Moore's law , several effects have conspired to make noise problems worse: To keep resistance tolerable despite decreased width, modern wire geometries are thicker in proportion to their spacing.

This increases the sidewall capacitance at the expense of capacitance to ground, hence increasing the induced noise voltage expressed as a fraction of supply voltage. Technology scaling has led to lower threshold voltages for MOS transistors, and has also reduced the difference between threshold and supply voltages, thereby reducing noise margins.

Logic speeds, and clock speeds in particular, have increased significantly, thus leading to faster transition rise and fall times. These faster transition times are closely linked to higher capacitive crosstalk. Also, at such high speeds the inductive properties of the wires come into play, especially mutual inductance. These effects have increased the interactions between signals and decreased the noise immunity of digital CMOS circuits.

This has led to noise being a significant problem for digital ICs that must be considered by every digital chip designer prior to tape-out. There are several concerns that must be mitigated: Noise may cause a signal to assume the wrong value.

This is particularly critical when the signal is about to be latched or sampled , for a wrong value could be loaded into a storage element, causing logic failure. Noise may delay the settling of the signal to the correct value. This is often called noise-on-delay. Noise e. This can reduce the lifetime of the device by stressing components, induce latchup , or cause multiple cycling of signals that should only cycle once in a given period.

Finding IC signal integrity problems[ edit ] Typically, an IC designer would take the following steps for SI verification: Perform a layout extraction to get the parasitics associated with the layout.

Usually worst-case parasitics and best-case parasitics are extracted and used in the simulations. For ICs, unlike PCBs, physical measurement of the parasitics is almost never done, since in-situ measurements with external equipment are extremely difficult. Furthermore, any measurement would occur after the chip has been created, which is too late to fix any problems observed.

Create a list of expected noise events, including different types of noise, such as coupling and charge sharing. Create a model for each noise event. It is critical that the model is as accurate as necessary to model the given noise event.

For each signal event, decide how to excite the circuit so that the noise event will occur. Create a SPICE or another circuit simulator netlist that represents the desired excitation, to include as many effects such as parasitic inductance and capacitance , and various distortion effects as necessary.

Analyze the simulation results and decide whether any re-design is required. It is common to analyze the results with an eye pattern and by calculating a timing budget. However, such tools generally are not applied across an entire IC, but only selected signals of interest. Fixing IC signal integrity problems[ edit ] Once a problem is found, it must be fixed.

Typical fixes for IC on-chip problems include: Removing impedance discontinuities. Finding places where significant shifts in the impedance exist and adjusting the geometry of the path to shift the impedance to better match the rest of the path.

Driver optimization. You can have too much drive, and also not enough. Buffer insertion.

Advanced Signal Integrity for High-Speed Digital Designs

In this approach, instead of upsizing the victim driver, a buffer is inserted at an appropriate point in the victim net. Aggressor downsizing. This works by increasing the transition time of the attacking net by reducing the strength of its driver.

Add shielding. Add shielding of critical nets or clock nets using GND and VDD shields to reduce the effect of crosstalk this technique may lead to routing overhead. Routing changes. Routing changes can be very effective in fixing noise problems, mainly by reducing the most troublesome coupling effects via separation.

Each of these fixes may possibly cause other problems. This type of issue must be addressed as part of design flows and design closure. Re-analysis after design changes is a prudent measure. On-die termination[ edit ] On-die termination ODT or Digitally Controlled Impedance DCI [4] is the technology where the termination resistor for impedance matching in transmission lines is located within a semiconductor chip, instead of a separate, discrete device mounted on a circuit board.

The closeness of the termination from the receiver shorten the stub between the two, thus improving the overall signal integrity. Chip-to-chip signal integrity[ edit ] Reflections occurring as a consequence of termination mismatch. See Time-domain reflectometry.

For wired connections, it is important to compare the interconnect flight time to the bit period to decide whether an impedance matched or unmatched connection is needed. The channel flight time delay of the interconnect is roughly 1 ns per 15 cm 6 in of FR-4 stripline the propagation velocity depends on the dielectric and the geometry [5]. Reflections of previous pulses at impedance mismatches die down after a few bounces up and down the line i.

At low bit rates, the echoes die down on their own, and by midpulse, they are not a concern. Impedance matching is neither necessary nor desirable. There are many circuit board types other than FR-4, but usually they are more costly to manufacture.

The gentle trend to higher bit rates accelerated dramatically in , with the introduction by Intel of the PCI-Express standard. Increasing interconnect density has led to each wire having neighbors that are physically closer together, leading to increased crosstalk between neighboring nets. As circuits have continued to shrink in accordance with Moore's law , several effects have conspired to make noise problems worse: To keep resistance tolerable despite decreased width, modern wire geometries are thicker in proportion to their spacing.

This increases the sidewall capacitance at the expense of capacitance to ground, hence increasing the induced noise voltage expressed as a fraction of supply voltage.

Technology scaling has led to lower threshold voltages for MOS transistors, and has also reduced the difference between threshold and supply voltages, thereby reducing noise margins.

Logic speeds, and clock speeds in particular, have increased significantly, thus leading to faster transition rise and fall times.

These faster transition times are closely linked to higher capacitive crosstalk. Also, at such high speeds the inductive properties of the wires come into play, especially mutual inductance. These effects have increased the interactions between signals and decreased the noise immunity of digital CMOS circuits.

This has led to noise being a significant problem for digital ICs that must be considered by every digital chip designer prior to tape-out.

There are several concerns that must be mitigated: Noise may cause a signal to assume the wrong value. This is particularly critical when the signal is about to be latched or sampled , for a wrong value could be loaded into a storage element, causing logic failure. Noise may delay the settling of the signal to the correct value.

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This is often called noise-on-delay. Noise e. This can reduce the lifetime of the device by stressing components, induce latchup , or cause multiple cycling of signals that should only cycle once in a given period.

Finding IC signal integrity problems[ edit ] Typically, an IC designer would take the following steps for SI verification: Perform a layout extraction to get the parasitics associated with the layout. Usually worst-case parasitics and best-case parasitics are extracted and used in the simulations. For ICs, unlike PCBs, physical measurement of the parasitics is almost never done, since in-situ measurements with external equipment are extremely difficult.

Furthermore, any measurement would occur after the chip has been created, which is too late to fix any problems observed. Create a list of expected noise events, including different types of noise, such as coupling and charge sharing. Create a model for each noise event. It is critical that the model is as accurate as necessary to model the given noise event. For each signal event, decide how to excite the circuit so that the noise event will occur.

Create a SPICE or another circuit simulator netlist that represents the desired excitation, to include as many effects such as parasitic inductance and capacitance , and various distortion effects as necessary. Analyze the simulation results and decide whether any re-design is required. It is common to analyze the results with an eye pattern and by calculating a timing budget. However, such tools generally are not applied across an entire IC, but only selected signals of interest.

Fixing IC signal integrity problems[ edit ] Once a problem is found, it must be fixed. Typical fixes for IC on-chip problems include: Removing impedance discontinuities. Finding places where significant shifts in the impedance exist and adjusting the geometry of the path to shift the impedance to better match the rest of the path. Driver optimization.

You can have too much drive, and also not enough. Buffer insertion. In this approach, instead of upsizing the victim driver, a buffer is inserted at an appropriate point in the victim net. Aggressor downsizing.

This works by increasing the transition time of the attacking net by reducing the strength of its driver. Add shielding.

High-Speed Digital Design - A Handbook of Black Magic

Add shielding of critical nets or clock nets using GND and VDD shields to reduce the effect of crosstalk this technique may lead to routing overhead. Routing changes. Routing changes can be very effective in fixing noise problems, mainly by reducing the most troublesome coupling effects via separation. Each of these fixes may possibly cause other problems.

This type of issue must be addressed as part of design flows and design closure. Re-analysis after design changes is a prudent measure.

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On-die termination[ edit ] On-die termination ODT or Digitally Controlled Impedance DCI [4] is the technology where the termination resistor for impedance matching in transmission lines is located within a semiconductor chip, instead of a separate, discrete device mounted on a circuit board. The closeness of the termination from the receiver shorten the stub between the two, thus improving the overall signal integrity. Chip-to-chip signal integrity[ edit ] Reflections occurring as a consequence of termination mismatch.

See Time-domain reflectometry. For wired connections, it is important to compare the interconnect flight time to the bit period to decide whether an impedance matched or unmatched connection is needed. The channel flight time delay of the interconnect is roughly 1 ns per 15 cm 6 in of FR-4 stripline the propagation velocity depends on the dielectric and the geometry [5].

Reflections of previous pulses at impedance mismatches die down after a few bounces up and down the line i.

At low bit rates, the echoes die down on their own, and by midpulse, they are not a concern. Impedance matching is neither necessary nor desirable. There are many circuit board types other than FR-4, but usually they are more costly to manufacture.Give the designer interim completion points—at which you want to be notified of the layout progress for a quick review. Most of this article is about SI in relation to modern electronic technology - notably the use integrated circuits and printed circuit board technology.

History[ edit ] Signal integrity primarily involves the electrical performance of the wires and other packaging structures used to move signals about within an electronic product. Add shielding of critical nets or clock nets using GND and VDD shields to reduce the effect of crosstalk this technique may lead to routing overhead.

The simulator does not incorporate skin-effect or dielectric loss. Here we will focus on routing inputs, outputs, and power to the amplifier. High-frequency RF signals are typically run on controlled-impedance lines. Parallel-capacitor rails-to-ground bypassing. Orthogonal routing will minimize capacitive coupling, and the ground will form an electrical shield.

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