INDIAN COMICS PDF

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Indian Comics Pdf

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- This Pin was discovered by Kumar. Discover (and save) your own Pins on Pinterest. Subir Dey with Prasad Bokil. DoD, IIT Guwahati. 1. Introduction. 2. Comics - Defining. 3. Development in India. 4. Ascend of Indian Superheroes. 5. Conclusion. Comics in India Jeremy Stoll Many authors and artists in India are conscious of or even directly engaged with international comics, especially from the USA.

But then again, the argument is that illustrated texts have always existed in India.

Because there are just so many layers to that. Because now it has also entered the domain of the sort of graphic, published books found in book shops.

Raj Comics

There is this katha form of storytelling, there is this patua tradition, which is also a form of storytelling, there is various traditional forms all around India. Yet, in terms of the roots of the comics form, Kumar chooses to focus on the rather clearer history of the comics medium after independence, as focusing on earlier works seems, at best, unfruitful Kumar This is an especially vivid point in the context of various creators, who each draw on a variety of sources for inspiration.

Before the widespread distribution of comics, though, the Oudh provided a precedent for comics storytelling. In large part, this saturation of Western comics was the result of British influence and import by soldiers or expats living in India Rao In the case of the Phantom series, though, these earliest comics were imported in order for publishing houses to take advantage of as yet un-tapped younger audiences. Based upon interviews with potential readers, Pai argued that the jungle setting would be more familiar to readers while still telling adventurous tales that appealed to young readers.

From his point of view, merely importing Western comics was not enough and likely reinforced problems with the Indian education system. Rao Through him, and based upon the precedent set by both the Times dailies and Western comics, production and distribution shifted to the national level. As writer, editor, and publisher of ACK, Pai was the leader behind the series, but he drew on several precedents in Indian culture. Similarly, several other publications intended for children, such as the Champak magazine, had already set a model for producing stories for young readers that engaged both visual and textual media.

Later, in the s, several creators and political cartoonists were publishing some of the earliest comics narratives in India based out of West Bengal. Yet, Pai did uniquely work to develop comics as an industry, primarily through a divided model of production, much like that of the later Raj Comics.

At the same time, though, as a result of the generally Western quality of imported comics, Pai was driven by a desire to focus on daily life in contemporary India. However, by , despite his initial enthusiasm for Indrajal, only three years after the publication of its first issue, Pai grew dissatisfied as the local comics section, which he valued most, became replaced by quizzes and other educational content McLain ; Chandra Pai would then turn to the Amar Chitra Katha series and developing it into one of the most important publishers in Indian comics culture.

Despite later criticism of the ACK series, Pai expertly argued for its stories as educational and helped to incorporate them into school curricula. ACK thus laid a strong foundation for Indian comics, albeit one firmly grounded in a young readership.

Indrajal thus began as a project attempting to tap into the phenomenal success of ACK and its attendant readership. Where Pai appealed to readers through Indian and visual culture, Indrajal began by relying on the popularity of the comics medium itself. Later on, though, Indrajal Comics began to appeal to readers in a different way.

While it began as the publisher of Phantom and Mandrake the Magician, its then manager, A. Shukla, worked with illustrator and writer Aabid Surti to create an Indian version of the adventurer- detective by then familiar to readers from Western comics. The result, Bahadur, which occurred off and on with Mandrake and Phantom, was different in that it was able to relate to daily life more so than ACK.

Rao Bahadur was relatively grounded in the changes and conflicts of then-contemporary India, though, unlike the grandiose and mythologically-oriented Amar Chitra Katha. This appeal to everyday reality contributed to a monthly sales of , copies in , as well as more liberal storylines to appeal to the more liberal readership of Mumbai Singh , cited in Rao This stemmed from the creative genius of Surti, who, as the lone illustrator-writer in the early comics industry, carried an experimental style into other adventure-themed comic strips.

The earliest comics by Surti, though, in appealing to the social and cultural reality of a changing India, were able to ground comics storytelling in lived experience. In addition to reader-submitted stories, though, certain humorous strips featuring particular characters also repeated in the pages of Tinkle McLain Similarly, Indian culture was not the only one to be addressed, and several volumes have taken the folklore of other countries as their focus.

However, the readership for Tinkle seems relatively narrow, as Rao notes, since the comic mainly appeals to an English-speaking middle class base. Despite a tendency to ignore the diversity within Indian culture, as much of the submitted stories contain largely Hindu names, references, or content, though, Tinkle provided a model for transforming comics into something more than a platform for nationalist sentiment and educational reform.

By appealing to everyday life in this way, Tinkle laid a foundation of reader participation in comics culture, which later creators would draw upon in crafting activist comics narratives and publishing companies.

At the same time, a variety of other creators were influencing the comics medium through stories told in comic strips. Among the important figures that creators referred to as sources of inspiration or a sense of history for their art, Mario Miranda, Rasipuram Krishnaswamy Iyer Laxman, and Manjula Padmanabhan stood out most strongly.

Miranda, having begun his career in cartooning in with the Times of India Group, later moved into illustration and writing, including his own books Goa with Love, A little World of Humor, and others Miranda ; Ramakrishnan Meanwhile, R. Each of these creators, as well as several others, is remarkable because Indian newspapers seldom ran strips by indigenous authors and artists Moddie By crafting stories about life in Indian culture today in a series of panels with all the trademarks of the form, Padmanabhan, Laxman, and Miranda each helped to develop Indian comics as a contemporary medium.

Pushing for Creativity Before the development of long-form comics narratives, though, the medium had to be re- established. Target magazine hosted several, including the high quality Detective Moochwala by Ajit Ninan Rao By , a national production and reception system proved unsustainable with the end of regular publications by ACK and Indrajal. At the same time, just as comics with a nationalist bias and English language base experienced a downturn, regional comics experienced a boom.

The most important company to come out of this period, Raj Comics, began publishing superhero and other comics in Its rise demonstrates a broad pattern of publication coming out of Northern India and resembling the model set by Tinkle more than that set by ACK. There were two comics centers in India, in independent Indian history. And there has been a very large migration of artists. Earlier, there was Bombay. As Rao demonstrates, publishing houses in Delhi shifted focus, publishing less in English and more in Hindi or Bengali than the earlier companies had in Mumbai, and they tended to give more freedom to the creators behind the comics Rao At the same time, Delhi-based publisher Diamond Comics led the way for Hindi pulp publishing houses more generally to enter the comics form.

Diamond grew out of Diamond Pocket Books, a pulp publisher, and focused on what Rao categorizes as the following: Alongside Diamond, Raj Comics grew out of Raja Pocket Books, another Hindi pulp publisher, and specialized in Indian superheroes with clear Western influences, as well as other fantastic, humor, or action-oriented stories Rao Raj Comics made its mark with Indian superheroes who dealt with both national and international injustice, as well as a visually detail-oriented style clearly influenced by ACK Rao He notes that the three brothers behind Raj, namely Sanjay, Manish, and Manoj Gupta, were inspired by their own love of the comics form.

So, my brother, Manoj, and I would read Amar Chitra Katha and the other comics that was around at that point of time. What happens is that once something fascinates you, you begin hunting for it. Kumar includes their experiences in Hard-Headed in order to demonstrate their passion for the comics medium, especially superhero stories.

As a result, specifically after seeing a Spider-man cartoon on part of the Sunday National Television in the early s, the three created Nagraj. Rather than evoking any one, culturally specific vision of India, the Gupta brothers focused on the ideals of the superhero genre as a response to contemporary social problems in India.

As a result of their regional focus, Raj, Diamond, Manoj, and others tended to rely more heavily upon the creativity of the authors and artists involved as a means to appeal to local audiences. That same shift helped to support a particular model of production that continued despite increasing freedom for creators.

For Delhi-based publishers like Raj and Diamond, production occurs along an assembly line, from a story concept created by an editor, to a writer, illustrator, a dialogue writer, cover illustrators, and a final set of illustrators who would finalize the art, as well as any potential translators Rao The result is often a relatively incoherent comics narrative, with multiple voices involved in the creative process who did not necessarily have the same goals or ideas for the final product.

Not one guy who makes a Raj Comic knows how to make the entire comic. However, as Kumar demonstrates through his commentary, this model often leads to frustration, especially as comics creators often long to do more than just one aspect of the production process.

As a result, creators like Kumar draw on, but do not ascribe to, such a creative model. Despite its controversial model of production, this period saw remarkable growth in comics culture.

As Rao in particular notes, the overlap between comics readers and creators that begins in this period enriched even the pulp-inspired comics of this period with a vibrancy based upon an enthusiasm and love of the form. Their short form, small size, and low price made these mini-comics more accessible than the larger, educational comics of ACK and other publishers. Growing interest in comics like Raj and Diamond led to the development of lending libraries due to a growing practice of youths and even adults sharing copies of comics9.

Furthermore, their vitality, irreverence, and tendency to push the comics medium toward innovation and more challenging stories set the stage for the next transformation of comics, from short to longer narratives. Making a Place for Comics In the move to regional comics production, long-form comics narratives too came to the fore. He describes the difficulties of finding a space for River at the time: Due to the lack of long-form or adult comics in book shops at the time, Sen had a great deal of difficulty finding a space for River.

As graphic novels go, The River of Stories is relatively short at only 61 pages. In addition, current reproductions are distributed in a basic format: Yet, what defines a graphic novel in this case is not the design or format.

For instance, Amitabh Kumar focuses instead on long-form comics as offering a change for creators. Instead of the industrial model of comics production generally supported in the U.

And that single figure is the artist, the singular creator. Or a collaborator. But 2 people or 3 people working together on it. The graphic novel form thus offered an alternative to the industrial model of production by focusing on the power of creativity and innovation.

Through a combination of personal connections and persuasion, Banerjee was able to open up a space for comics in the Indian book publishing industry. At the same time, though, corporate comics culture in India was preparing for a boom that would lead to a digital model of comics publishing, albeit while generally continuing associations of comics with children and creatively shallow production models.

In doing so, Banerjee and later creators could be understood through their exceptional creativity. Kumar describes this shift in creative philosophy as one that is simultaneously very interesting and challenging for those creators considering crafting comics narratives.

Where a lot of amateurs are being pushed and trying to negotiate with publishing comics, web comics, modes of distribution, comic conferences…So what Comix. India is doing. What people from Project C are trying to do. What Pao is trying to do. There is a lot of activity. And a lot of energy, regarding the future of comics in India. Accordingly, comics creator Bharath Murthy spear-headed the anthologies of Comix.

India, where amateur and more advanced authors and artists are able to collaborate and be published side by side Murthy At the same time that corporate and activist publishers rose to prominence again, the boom of publications in Indian graphic novels was finally taking hold.

In addition, Amruta Patil published her Kari in , to much critical acclaim, and Appupen released his socially critical Moonward. The latter work became part of a wave of graphic novels that transformed the medium by re-structuring it according to traditional art styles. Over that same time period, Comix. India published all four of its current anthologies, Raj Comics, Tinkle digest, and Liquid Comics were continuing their publication runs, and Comics Jump published their first runs of stories.

The graphic novel was taking hold, even as various format anthologies also came onto the scene. Most importantly, this period marked the establishment of a group of five comics creators called the Pao Collective in the publishing world, a group that includes Kumar, Sen, and Banerjee, alongside fellow creators Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Parismita Singh. Over that time, each of the five members of Pao had work published: What happens is that once something fascinates you, you begin hunting for it.

Kumar includes their experiences in Hard-Headed in order to demonstrate their passion for the comics medium, especially superhero stories. As a result, specifically after seeing a Spider-man cartoon on part of the Sunday National Television in the early s, the three created Nagraj.

Rather than evoking any one, culturally specific vision of India, the Gupta brothers focused on the ideals of the superhero genre as a response to contemporary social problems in India. As a result of their regional focus, Raj, Diamond, Manoj, and others tended to rely more heavily upon the creativity of the authors and artists involved as a means to appeal to local audiences.

That same shift helped to support a particular model of production that continued despite increasing freedom for creators.

For Delhi-based publishers like Raj and Diamond, production occurs along an assembly line, from a story concept created by an editor, to a writer, illustrator, a dialogue writer, cover illustrators, and a final set of illustrators who would finalize the art, as well as any potential translators Rao The result is often a relatively incoherent comics narrative, with multiple voices involved in the creative process who did not necessarily have the same goals or ideas for the final product.

Not one guy who makes a Raj Comic knows how to make the entire comic. However, as Kumar demonstrates through his commentary, this model often leads to frustration, especially as comics creators often long to do more than just one aspect of the production process.

As a result, creators like Kumar draw on, but do not ascribe to, such a creative model. Despite its controversial model of production, this period saw remarkable growth in comics culture. As Rao in particular notes, the overlap between comics readers and creators that begins in this period enriched even the pulp-inspired comics of this period with a vibrancy based upon an enthusiasm and love of the form.

Their short form, small size, and low price made these mini-comics more accessible than the larger, educational comics of ACK and other publishers.

Growing interest in comics like Raj and Diamond led to the development of lending libraries due to a growing practice of youths and even adults sharing copies of comics9.

Welcome to the world of Comics, movies and many more…

Furthermore, their vitality, irreverence, and tendency to push the comics medium toward innovation and more challenging stories set the stage for the next transformation of comics, from short to longer narratives. Making a Place for Comics In the move to regional comics production, long-form comics narratives too came to the fore.

He describes the difficulties of finding a space for River at the time: Due to the lack of long-form or adult comics in book shops at the time, Sen had a great deal of difficulty finding a space for River. As graphic novels go, The River of Stories is relatively short at only 61 pages.

In addition, current reproductions are distributed in a basic format: Yet, what defines a graphic novel in this case is not the design or format. For instance, Amitabh Kumar focuses instead on long-form comics as offering a change for creators.

Instead of the industrial model of comics production generally supported in the U. And that single figure is the artist, the singular creator.

Or a collaborator. But 2 people or 3 people working together on it. The graphic novel form thus offered an alternative to the industrial model of production by focusing on the power of creativity and innovation.

Comic Books and Graphic Novels

Through a combination of personal connections and persuasion, Banerjee was able to open up a space for comics in the Indian book publishing industry. At the same time, though, corporate comics culture in India was preparing for a boom that would lead to a digital model of comics publishing, albeit while generally continuing associations of comics with children and creatively shallow production models. In doing so, Banerjee and later creators could be understood through their exceptional creativity.

Kumar describes this shift in creative philosophy as one that is simultaneously very interesting and challenging for those creators considering crafting comics narratives.

Where a lot of amateurs are being pushed and trying to negotiate with publishing comics, web comics, modes of distribution, comic conferences…So what Comix. India is doing. What people from Project C are trying to do.

What Pao is trying to do. There is a lot of activity. And a lot of energy, regarding the future of comics in India. Accordingly, comics creator Bharath Murthy spear-headed the anthologies of Comix. India, where amateur and more advanced authors and artists are able to collaborate and be published side by side Murthy At the same time that corporate and activist publishers rose to prominence again, the boom of publications in Indian graphic novels was finally taking hold.

In addition, Amruta Patil published her Kari in , to much critical acclaim, and Appupen released his socially critical Moonward. The latter work became part of a wave of graphic novels that transformed the medium by re-structuring it according to traditional art styles.

Over that same time period, Comix. India published all four of its current anthologies, Raj Comics, Tinkle digest, and Liquid Comics were continuing their publication runs, and Comics Jump published their first runs of stories. The graphic novel was taking hold, even as various format anthologies also came onto the scene. Most importantly, this period marked the establishment of a group of five comics creators called the Pao Collective in the publishing world, a group that includes Kumar, Sen, and Banerjee, alongside fellow creators Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Parismita Singh.

Over that time, each of the five members of Pao had work published: The members of the Pao Collective are important to the larger history of comics in India because of their focus upon building a community for creators in Delhi. The Pao Collective as a group is directed toward raising the comics medium up as an independent art form or medium.

Because all of us were not isolated, but we were all doing our own thing. Both of them. And we really wanted to do something that was for us. In so doing, Kumar and the other members of the collective also work to make it possible for artists and authors like themselves to make a living from creating comics alone. A History of Creativity The Pao Collective has grown out of the shift to understand comics based on authorial or artisanal skill. Thus, each creator works relatively independently, with all but Kumar illustrating and writing most, if not all, their work.

Meanwhile, the comics community and culture in India, centered in Delhi, continues to grow in numbers, diversity, and strength.

Each year, more artists, authors, and publishers pick up the comics form, for profit, communication, artistic experimentation, or otherwise. Within the history are many narratives that show the heights to which this culture can rise: While the strength of each entry into this tradition of comics-creation remains debate- able, with various voices criticizing artwork, storytelling, or even subject matter, each one adds to the strength of the medium and shows the importance of this kind of visual narrative in illustrating, understanding, and communicating about what it means to be a human, cultural being in the 21st century.

Within the history of Indian comics, the rise of the Pao Collective is important because they represent a means to maintain authorial control, quality production, and even artistic community.

What is most important about this moment, historically, is the shift to a production model that emphasizes creativity, innovation, and community engagement. What is most important, creatively, though, is that doing so enables creators to craft a medium that is beyond literature and beyond art, but rather something else entirely: They draw on the historical evidence of storytelling traditions surrounding the Daastan-E-Amir Haamza in performing these traditional stories for contemporary, youth audiences Kapur Editors, headed by Anant Pai, coordinated the various members of the production team in order to make stories cohere.

Photograph by the author. Kalpavriksha, p. Image 4 Cover of Corridor: Banerjee, Sarnath. A Graphic Novel. New Delhi: Penguin India. New Delhi, Penguin India.

The Harappa Files. Byatnal, Amruta. Accessed April 20 About Us.

Inks: The Journal of the Comics Studies Society

The Classic Popular: Amar Chitra Katha Yoda Press. Deb, Debasish. Debasish Deb meets Narayan Debnath the Cartoonist. Delhi Calm. Harper Collins India. Hasan, Mushirul. Wit and Humour in Colonial North India. Niyogi Books.

Kapur, Mita. Raj Comics for the Hard-Headed. A Brief Overview. Accessed November 01 http: Mario de Miranda Official Site. Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes. Indiana University Press. Moddie, Mandira.

Accessed October 1 Accessed October 15 http: A Survey of Indian Comics. Volume One: Random Selection. Overdorf, Jason. The Pao Collective. Updated June 17, Indian Institute of Cartoonists. Accessed December 11 Accessed December 10 Accessed May 20 Roof, W. Sen and Banerjee also became acquainted with Parismita Singh, a graphic novelist and researcher whose Hotel at the end of the World was based on fieldwork in Assam. Jeremy Stoll. Chilaka, R. The hero must go inward, to be ultimately born again.

Wadley, — Merin Sanil

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