Pernkopf anatomy: atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy. Edition/ Format: eBook: Document: English: 3rd edView all editions and formats. The first order of business is to review these two books for what they are: an anatomical atlas. As countless others have remarked since their publication over [PDF] 1: Pernkopf Anatomy: Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human ( Pernkopf Anatomy, Vol 1) (English and German Edition) eBook, make sure you click the.
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Ebook] PDF Download Pernkopf Anatomy: Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy: Head and Neck (Pernkopf Anatomy, Vol 1)From. LibraryThing Review. User Review - Alexiou - LibraryThing. This is the best atlas I have ever seen of head and neck anatomy Read full review. Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy: Head and neck. Front Cover. Eduard Pernkopf. W. B. Saunders Company, - Anatomy, Human.
A detailed look at the procurement of cadavers after the Anschluss of the annexation of Austria into the Third Reich followed. For example, in February , a decree from the minister of education of the German Reich proclaimed all bodies of executed prisoners were to be sent to the nearest department of anatomy. It is important to note that much of these data were only discovered fairly recently, again as a result of the investigation advocated by Israel and Seidelman.
As much of this material was covered in the Hildebrandt text, which many of the students had not read, extra time was taken during this portion of the seminar to allow group reflection. The questions that the interviewer asked are piercing, and some of the accounts are chilling. To maximize its affecting potential, students were not made aware of this article prior to the session.
Again, student volunteers were procured to read the interviews. After each of the three interviews, we facilitated group reflection and discussion.
As each interviewed professor exhibited a different attitude toward Pernkopf and the Nazi-era Institute of Anatomy ranging from dismissive, to saddened, to defensive , these readings were powerful catalysts for group discussion. After viewing the Atlas, discovering its historical context, and reading firsthand accounts of Pernkopf, we asked the students what we should do with our copies of this resource.
Before the students answered, we presented overviews of viewpoints from both sides of the debate: powerful quotes against its use were juxtaposed alongside those advocating for its preservation [ 11 , 12 ].
Some took several seconds, carefully considering their responses. After we collected the responses, the group was asked if they wanted to hear the results aloud. All students answered affirmatively. Eight of the ten students believed the atlas should be made freely available at the library as long as historical contextual information was included for interested parties.
Two students advocated for a higher level of promotion to actively tell the story of Pernkopf and his Atlas. With this last activity completed, the seminar concluded. He joined the Storm Troopers, or Brown Shirts, a year later.
He was an active and fervent party member. One month after Nazi Germany invaded Austria in , Pernkopf was made dean of the medical faculty in Vienna. From to , he was rektor magnificus president of the University of Vienna. At the time that Pernkopf was appointed dean of the medical faculty of the University of Vienna, the Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift was the official publication of the Viennese Society of Doctors.
Pernkopf's name appeared on the masthead of that journal for the first time in the May 20, , issue, just several weeks after annexation, when the supporting organization, the Vienna Society of Doctors, was dissolved by the Nazis [ 2 ]. Pernkopf, dean. Pernkopf's first issue included his plans for his journal.
He and his new editors began by swearing undying allegiance to the new Reich and promising that the journal would serve the fatherland [ 3 ]. He said that the idea of National Socialism must permeate education and science and that freedom in the liberal sense leads to chaos, which could not be permitted in science [ 4 ].
He told the faculty and students that the only useful goal of art and science was service to the nation, that National Socialism was devoted to the practical solution of problems, and that the critical issues that anatomy and embryology could address were constitution and race.
The dean promised that all disciplines in the medical faculty would work on the problem of race. The curriculum would change to include race physiology, race psychology, and race pathology [ 5 ].
Another of Pernkopf's first acts as dean of the faculty was to enforce the Nazi order to cleanse the University of Vienna of Jews and other unwanted individuals.
All professors were required to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler, but only politically desirable persons or those entitled to do so under the Nuremberg Race Laws were allowed to take the oath [ 6 ].
Within weeks, the university had removed all Jews and other opponents of Nazism; of the members of the faculty of medicine were dismissed. He was, however, held in an Allied prison camp near Salzburg for three years. He returned to Vienna where his Anatomy Institute had been largely destroyed by Allied bombing. He was stripped of all titles and appointments, but was allowed to continue work on his atlas in the Neurological Institute.
Pernkopf died suddenly of a stroke on April 17, Pernkopf's Topographical Anatomy of Man is generally considered by anatomists and surgeons to be a unique classic among anatomy atlases. Its classic status and significant contribution to the health professions remains unchallenged.
It is well known that some of the artists who painted the illustrations for the Pernkopf atlas were themselves active and loyal members of the National Socialist Party in Austria.
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Erich Lepier, Franze Batke, and Karl Endtresser demonstrated their allegiance to Nazi ideology by signing their anatomic paintings with Nazi icons. Lepier often signed his paintings with a swastika edition, volume 2, Figure , tafel 94, opposite page While the illustrations themselves do not provide any direct evidence concerning the origins of the subjects, small details in some illustrations raised suspicions [ 9 ].
The wasted appearance and crudely shaven head of a young man in an illustration of a dissection by Lepier suggested that the subject might have been a wartime prisoner edition, volume 3, Figure 50, tafel 43, opposite page A Batke illustration edition, volume 3, Figure 9, tafels 3 and 4, opposite page 44 showed a cadaver with very short hair; cadavers used in anatomy books usually had completely shaved heads.
Endtresser painted a dissection of the femoral region of a male who appears to have been circumcised edition, volume 2, Figure , tafel , opposite page Lepier's painting of an infant with the umbilical cord still attached edition, volume 2, Figure 6, opposite page 39 led to the questioning of the origins and cause of death of the subjects.
It detailed Pernkopf's administrative and political activities and described his professional work on the publication of an anatomic atlas. The atlas was said to contain material from children killed in a Viennese hospital and that Pernkopf's Institute of Anatomy used the corpses of executed persons for teaching purposes. The piece that really sparked the current controversy about the Pernkopf atlas was a letter to the editor of JAMA in November signed by a professor of dental surgery from Columbia University and a professor of family and community medicine from the University of Toronto [ 11 ].
Most pointedly they said that The precise origins of the cadavers used in Pernkopf's work are unknown, but evidence suggests they may have been victims of political terror. It is known that the Anatomy Institute of the University of Vienna received the cadavers of prisoners executed at the Vienna District Court and of others put to death at Gestapo execution chambers in Linz, Munich, and Prague. Their letter called the Pernkopf atlas a legacy of the tragic era when abuses of medicine pervaded the entire medical profession.
In March , the Israel Holocaust and Martyrs Remembrance authority, Yad Vashem, asked the rector of the University of Vienna and the publisher of the atlas to make an official investigation to determine who the subjects of the Pernkopf atlas were and how they died; if the subjects were, or could have been, victims of the Nazis, to establish a public commemoration of the victims; and to continue to publish the atlas with an acknowledgment documenting the history of Pernkopf and commemorating the victims [ 12, 13 ].
The letter indicated that preliminary investigations suggested that, during the Nazi dictatorship, the anatomy department routinely received the corpses of executed persons, among whom reportedly were renowned dissidents; that brain preparations derived from children under the euthanasia program in the Psychiatrishes Krankenhaus Bauingartner Hohe in Vienna which was never an integral part of the university were still stored there, but would soon be properly interred; and that the Universities of Graz and Prague were supplied with corpses of prisoners interned at the Mauthausen concentration camp, but the fate of these corpses was unclear.
The commission stated that there was no doubt that the Viennese school of anatomy used the bodies of Nazi victims for scientific purposes and concluded that it must be assumed with considerable certainty that Pernkopf used these preparations to illustrate his atlas.
It was, however, at that time impossible either to prove this conclusively or conclusively identify the subjects and whether they included Jewish victims. Furthermore, it is unclear whether cadavers were at that time supplied to the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Vienna not only from the Vienna district court but also from concentration camps.
Pending the results of the investigation, it is therefore within the individual user's ethical responsibility to decide whether and in which way he wishes to use this book.
The investigation revealed that the Institute of Anatomy received at least 1, bodies of executed persons, including 8 victims of Jewish origin. In these cases, however, the investigation was able neither to prove nor to disprove the suspicions. Because of the systematic practice of making specimens anonymous, it seems likely that a final clarification of such suspicions will not now be possible. Much of the previous debate on the use of Nazi scientific data focused on the hypothermia experiments carried out on concentration camp inmates at Dachau.
That debate was rendered moot when analysis revealed the results to be based on experiments with serious errors in experimental design, data collection, and analysis [ 19 ].
In , the Environmental Protection Agency ordered that Nazi data on human exposure to phosgene gas be excluded from a study the agency had commissioned [ 20 ]. However, the validity of the Pernkopf data has never been challenged, only lauded.
Human Anatomy (WCB Applied Biology)
Many arguments can be raised against the use of material like the Pernkopf atlas. For example, Abraham Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League, said that the research findings of heinous crimes or atrocities should not be used, even if it would do good, because it would retrospectively cleanse the atrocity and possibly justify similar acts in the future [ 22 ]. Freedman has thoroughly analyzed many of these issues [ 23 ], and Riggs has provided a readable summary of Freedman's reasoning [ 24 ].
The current author, Riggs, Greene, and others believe that the active use of the atlas itself is the most fitting tribute to those who died for it. It is ironic retribution for the Jewish cadavers or whoever died for whatever their beliefs used to illustrate a Nazi's anatomic atlas to be immortalized by it.
Using this atlas allows these cadavers to speak to us from half a century ago. They make us reexamine and again repudiate the Nazi beliefs that created a society that killed them [ 25, 26 ]. Howard Spiro, at the Program for Humanities in Medicine at Yale University, says it does not matter where the victims came from—they were all humans, and all were murdered.
Waverly conducted their own inquiry, speaking to authors and illustrators who worked on the atlas after Pernkopf died in , reading letters from present faculty at the University of Vienna, and talking with a student who attended the medical school during the war [ 28 ].
Atlas Of Human Anatomy Books
Hutton, Jr. In a November letter to JAMA, Hutton said his company continued to publish the Pernkopf atlas because of its scientific merit and because, to date, no concrete evidence had been found to substantiate Pernkopf's use of cadavers originating from Nazi concentration camp victims [ 29 ]. Still others think that what is created does not change when one learns about the creator.
Malcolm Hast, of Northwestern University Medical School, who reviewed the book for JAMA, said that as it was one of the most beautiful anatomy books published, the book should continue to be used. He believed that if something was good, it could not be thrown away any more than the knowledge already gained from it could be expurgated from readers' minds [ 32 ].
Ernest April, an anatomist at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, believed that one could not detract from the fact that the book was phenomenal, complete, thorough, and authoritative despite the knowledge that Pernkopf was not a good person and belonged to the wrong party [ 34 ]. Howard Israel, M. Israel noted that there was no indication to the unsuspecting user that the book had any link to Nazi medicine, and he viewed suppression of the work as inappropriate and reminiscent of the book burnings that took place in Nazi Germany.
Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 48 2 , — Atlas of human anatomy. Google Scholar Norman, J.
The anatomical plates of Pietro da Cortona. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels. Google Scholar Pernkopf, E.
Atlas of topographical and applied human anatomy, Vol. Google Scholar Standring, S.Many arguments can be raised against the use of material like the Pernkopf atlas. In this case, the ethical questions concern the origin of the cadavers used for the dissections from which its anatomical illustrations are drawn.
A lot of compilations are given in soft file. Before you read our review, download Atlas of Human Anatomy for the Artist pdf free from our site. Atlas of human anatomy. While an admirable idea, this practice would be extremely difficult for libraries and owners of private subscriptions to do.
A Batke illustration edition, volume 3, Figure 9, tafels 3 and 4, opposite page 44 showed a cadaver with very short hair; cadavers used in anatomy books usually had completely shaved heads.
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